Paul Revere helped Deborah Sampson Gannett receive her Military Pension
Deborah Sampson descended from the Pilgrims of Plympton (sic), Massachusetts. She was born December 17, 1760 , in Sharon Massachusetts, a community thirty-five miles south of Boston and forty-two miles southeast of Worcester. Sharon was hardly the center of patriotism or radical politics. Deborah was the oldest of six children from a poor family. Her father deserted the family. Literally, he sailed away. Her mother could not provide for them and the Town of Sharon's safety net could not accommodate the seven Sampsons. Deborah was indentured at the early age of ten to a neighbor on a nearby farm. It was a hard life but she learned to sew, hunt, ride and modest woodworking. The adopted family all helped educate her. Deborah's indenture ended at eighteen, a little early to be set free from the terms of indenture. Her future employment as a school teacher and weaver must have given her a taste of independence.
In 1782 Deborah failed at volunteering for the Continental Army. She marched all the way to Worcester dressed as a man hoping she would not be discovered. Her second attempt under the enlisted name of Robert Shurtliff found her quickly engaged with a Worcester regiment in the Hudson Valley, near West Point. She did some solo scouting on behalf of George Washington and led a successful raiding party.
In two years of service, Robert was wounded twice, but she managed to conceal her gender while being treated. She recovered from a sword wound to the head. She removed a bullet wound to her thigh by herself.[i] Typical of camp life, diseases were as much a concern as wounds. She developed a serious fever landing her in a Philadelphia hospital. Her doctor discovered her true gender.
Unfortunately, George Washington did not like any women in camp do to the impact they had on discipline and the necessary extra support, food and baggage. He instructed his generals to remove all women from camp to improve discipline. He handed Deborah her honorable discharge in writing but did not utter a word of thanks.
Benjamin Gannet of Sharon married Deborah on her return to Massachusetts. Deborah wrote her memoirs and toured New England in her military dress uniform and demonstrated battlefield techniques. The statue above, in front of the Sharon Library merges her military clothing with her civilian attire. The Gannetts suffered financial difficulties and applied for Deborah’s military pension. Congress rejected her request.
One day, twenty-one years later, Paul Revere visited the Town of Sharon. It was next to the Town of Canton, the home of Paul’s new foundry and forge. Paul took up her cause, writing to the Congressman for her district. In his words, Paul said, Deborah was “much more deserving than hundreds to whom Congress have been generous.” Paul Revere was qualified to make the above statement since he had three major military assignments. The Penobscot Expedition was a significant failure leading to court martial charges against all officers, including himself. He served withe the Massachusetts militia, on Castle William, many months as a colonel and was part of the expedition to Rhode Island that failed to even engage the enemy.
Revere rarely showed emotions in his various writings except in the case of Deborah Sampson. He embedded his personality and his professional experience as he proselytized to Congress for her military pension. He was greatly satisfied with his efforts at achieving a veteran’s pension for her service. In total, twenty-one years of effort by the Gannets invigorated by Paul Revere's letter, earned Deborah a pension of $4.00/month, equal to about $104 today.
Below is a heartfelt letter by Paul Revere to Congressman William Eustis, dated February 20, 1804, in support of Deborah’s application for a pension. Paul’s next to the last paragraph may sound a bit peculiar today, but consider that he wrote it in the early part of the Nineteenth Century. Try your best not to judge him from the Twenty-first Century.
Deborah Sampson Gannett, like Paul Revere, is another of our early American heroes that deserves more attention.
Post Script Four years after Deborah’s death, Benjamin Gannet applied for a survivor's pension petitioning directly to the United States Congress. Though they were not married at the time of her service, Congress concluded that there were no similar situations, and awarded the "survivors pension". Unfortunately, Benjamin died before Congress issued the payment.
There does seem to be some contradiction to the granting of Deborah’s honorable discharge. In contradiction, General Henry Knox or George Washington are credited. Washington may well have been too busy, but women in the camp were one of his many significant concerns.
Was Deborah Sampson a model for women of the second revolution?(iv) It is estimated that between 400-700 women served clandestinely on both sides of the Civil War. For example, immediately below is Frances Clayton alias Frances Clalin of the Union Army.iii
Paul Revere would have endorsed the Commonwealth of Massachusetts designation of Deborah Sampson as the official state heroine on “Deborah Sampson Day,” May 23, 1982.
If you have further interest in Civil War women, Maggie Maclean’s “Civil War Women” referenced below is a very interesting read.
Mann, Herman. The Female Review: Life of Deborah Sampson, the Female Soldier in the War of Revolution. New York: Arno Press, 1972 http://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=326&img_step=1&mode=transcript#page1 "MHS Collections Online: Letter from Paul Revere to William Eustis, 20 February 1804." MHS Collections Online: Letter from Paul Revere to William Eustis, 20 February 1804. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2017. National Women's History Museum." Education & Resources - National Women's History Museum – NWHM Smith, Sam. "Female Soldiers in the Civil War." Civil War Trust. Civil War Trust, n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2017. MacLean, Maggie. "Maggie MacLean." Civil War Women. N.p., 23 Aug. 2015. Web. 07 Mar. 2017. MassHist.org Paul Revere and Deborah Sampson, http://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=326&mode=dual&img_step=1&pid=3&nodesc=1&br=1#page1 Field Guide to U. S. Public Monuments & Memorials http://www.monumentsandmemorials.com/report.php?id=1041
[i] "National Women's History Museum." Education & Resources - National Women's History Museum - NWHM. N.p., 05 Feb. 2010. Web. 07 Mar. 2017.
[ii] Library of Congress
iii MacLean, Maggie. "Maggie MacLean." Civil War Women. N.p., 23 Aug. 2015. Web. 07 Mar. 2017.
iv) Second revolution. A term often used by abolitionists to suggest the Civil War would correct some of the failings in the U. S. Constitution, such as its quiet endorsement of slavery.
8/13/2018 Great Work! So glad to see other walking guides whose research and use of primary sources is so thorough. DLa xxx (a.k.a. Mistress xxxxxxxxx de la xxx) #ocbground
Date: Fri, jun 22, 2018, 3:57 pm subject: re: walk boston history Tour to: n>
The tour of the freedom trail with the emphasis on Paul Revere was very informative. We started at the state house and learned about its architecture. We continued through Boston Commons and past the burial grounds. We then continued to the north end and Paul Revere’s house. At each stop Mitch had many interesting and little known facts to tell us. We were surprised by the number of occupations Paul Revere had. During our walk through the north end Mitch pointed out various restaurants to eat in. The tour was about 2 miles of walking and lasted about 1 hour 45 minutes and was most enjoyable. We would definitely take another tour with Mitch in the future. Betsy, florida
9/5/2017 Hi Sheila,
I just wanted to tell you and Mitch how very much I enjoyed today. Mitch is passion for history comes through loud and clear in his delivery.
I learned new facts about Paul Revere that I had never known before.
Mitch was so well-prepared including all of the pictures and it was obvious that heput a lot of time and effort into this tour and the presentation.
So thank you so much for the invitation He did a great job! leslie b, Natick
10/18/2017Hi Mitch, finally getting to say thank you for such an enjoyable day and tour of Paul Revere etc.. I truly learned so much and loved walking through so much of historic Boston! PHYLIS, nh
9/5/2017 Hi Beth, Thanks for asking us to go on your tour, Mitch, of Boston’s historic sites. Your enthusiasm and love of history is contagious. You made history come alive. Sorry I had to leave early. I bet the tour of the North End was equally exciting! You put your all into it. sarah r. Wellesley
6/15/2017 firstname.lastname@example.org Comment 6/1/2017, Your remarks about John Hancock really painted a historical image of the man. 6/1/2016 Hi Mitch, resume services reviews has just posted a comment on your blog post, Why Did Paul Revere Become a Coroner at the Age of Sixty-two? : This is a very interesting piece of historical information. I was never aware of this information before. I didn't even know how relevant Paul Revere is in the history of Boston. It seems that he is a very important figure on Boston's foundation. I'm definitely going to dwell further into matter and research more about him.Comment actions:
Irishman1987 I was there that day with members of Jerusalem lodge #104 Keene NH, I am so glad I had the chance to attend this event and pay my respects.
6/3/2017 GS, SNHU,edu, Mitch your remarks about John Hancock really painted an historical image of the man.
10/15/2016 Thank you so much for the Boston Massacre Tour. I never knew it was such a complicated affair. I particularly liked the incidental historical stops about Colonial Boston. I hadn't been downtown for years. You opened up so much for me. June, Natick Ma.
An association of tour guidES for educators, amateur historians, and the general public looking to walk beyond the Freedom Trail, concentrating on the legal, philosophical, emotional and political events of Boston.